Day 2 :
Biotechnology Consulting, Spain
Time : 10:00-10:40
Frédéric Fonlut has obtained his degree from Universite de Bordeaux and has 30 years of experience in the biotechnology, aquaculture and environment sectors. His profile is mainly of a developer using the results of research to apply them to industrial production processes, controlled, profitable and safe to put on the market of quality products. Responsible for multidisciplinary teams, his objective includes: the selection of species and the development of production system in large volume, in different structures adapted to the needs of each species (Molluscs, Crustaceans, Fishes and Microalgae). His incorporation has been both with the public sector, research centers, IFREMER (French Research Institute for Exploitation of Sea, France), IRTA, PEMARES (Spain), ADOA, (Dominican Aquaculture Association, Dominican Republic), ACFK (Aquaculture Center of the Florida Keys, USA), as private companies, also ensuring in many projects the technical transfer between the two sectors. His motivation and personal vocation is to continue to participate in this great project of discovering our biosphere. "The solution is out there".
Nowadays, more than ever, biotechnologies sectors are increasingly screening and isolating natural species to produce valuable and commercial molecules for the cosmetics, medical, chemicals and food markets. In the case of microalgae, the isolation of the strains focuses on natural species, with a high potential to synthesize these molecules in the culture process in complete cycle and in large volume. As a result, a significant amount of high quality EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) is entering the market; DHA (docosahexanoic acid), EPS, pigments, various carotenoids and many other types of products. After several decades of RDI (Research Development and Innovation), the acquired knowledge daily increases, impulses and secures new projects in the culture of micro-algae and the production and extraction of new molecules. "The solution is out there". We present the main molecule process used for different markets, from its research to the scale up on large volume on an industrial level. We analyze each species, the milestones, the limiting factors and the result for each case. Lastly, we study in depth the case of two molecules with a great future and an interest for the natural products' market.
1. M A Borowitzka (2013) High value products from microalgae, their development and commercialization. Journal of Applied Phycology. 25(3):743-756.
2. M Vigani et al. (2015) Food and Feed products from microalgae: market opportunities and challenge for the EU. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 42(1):81-92.
3. M Koller, A Muhr and G Braunegg (2014) Microalgae as versatile cellular factories for valued products. Algal Research. 6:52-63.
4. J J Milledge (2011) Commercial application of microalgae other than as biofuels: a brief review. Reviews in Environmental Science and Biology. 10(1):31-41.
5. D A White et al. (2013) The effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on growth and biochemical composition of marine microalgae cultures. Journal of Applied Phycology. 25(1):153-165.
University of Rochester, USA
Time : 10-40-11:20
Henry M. Sobell completed his studies at Brooklyn Technical High School (1948-1952), Columbia College (1952-1956) and the University of Virginia School of Medicine (1956-1960). Instead of practicing clinical medicine, he then went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to join Professor Alexander Rich in the Department of Biology (1960-1965), where, as a Helen Hay Whitney Postdoctoral Fellow, he learned the technique of single crystal X-ray analysis. He then joined the Chemistry Department at the University of Rochester, having been subsequently jointly appointed to both the Chemistry and Molecular Biophysics departments (the latter at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry), becoming a full tenured Professor in both departments (1965-1993).
Premeltons are examples of emergent structures (i.e., structural solitons) that arise spontaneously in DNA due to the presence of nonlinear excitations in its structure. They are of two kinds: B-B (or A-A) premeltons form at specific DNA-regions to nucleate site-specific DNA melting. These are stationary and being globally nontopological, undergo breather motions that allow drugs and
dyes to intercalate into DNA. B-A (or A-B) premeltons, on the other hand, are mobile and being globally topological, act as phaseboundaries transforming B-into A- DNA during the structural phase-transition. They are not expected to undergo breathermotions. A key feature of both types of premeltons is the presence of an intermediate structural-form in their central regions (proposed as being a transition-state intermediate in DNA-melting and in the B- to A- transition), which differs from either A-or B- DNA. Called beta-DNA, this is both metastable and hyperflexible and contains an alternating sugar-puckering pattern along the polymer-backbone combined with the partial-unstacking (in its lower energy-forms) of every other base-pair. Beta-DNA is connected to either B- or to A- DNA on either side by boundaries possessing a gradation of nonlinear structural-change, these being called the kink and the antikink regions. The presence of premeltons in DNA leads to a unifying theory to understand much of DNA physical-chemistry and molecular-biology. In particular, premeltons are predicted to define the 5’ and 3’ ends of genes in naked-DNA and DNA in active-chromatin, this having important implications for understanding physical aspects of the initiation, elongation and termination of RNA-synthesis during transcription. For these and other reasons, the model will be of broader interest to the general audience working in these areas. The model explains a wide variety of data and carries within it a number of experimental predictions – all readily testable – as will be described in this talk.
1. Sobell H M (2016) Premeltons in DNA. Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics 17(1):17-31.
2. Sobell H M (2009) Premeltons in DNA. A unifying polymer-physics concept to understand DNA physical-chemistry and molecular-biology. Explanatory publications, Lake Luzerne, NY, ISBN 978-0-615-33828-6.
3. Sobell H M (2013) Organization of DNA in Chromatin. Rather than bending uniformly along its length, nucleosomal DNA is proposed to consist of multiple segments of B- and A- DNA held together by kinks when forming its left -handed toroidal superhelical structure. Explanatory publications, Lake Luzerne, NY, ISBN 978-0-692-01974-0.